However, in recent years, as the important agricultural capital for agricultural production, the amount of pesticide and fertilizer in our country has been increasing year by year. In order to improve the utilization rate of pesticides and achieve the purpose of reducing and controlling pesticides, China’s Ministry of Agriculture has formulated pesticide and fertilizer The reduction plan has achieved remarkable results so far.
Farming manure is the essence of traditional farming civilization. Fertilizer is a general term for a class of substances that provide nutrients to plants. In the ancient era of slash-and-burn, industrious people learned to burn plants and leave mineral nutrients to provide nutrition for the next season’s crops. By the Spring and Autumn Period, mature fertilizer and fertilizer technologies have been gradually formed. During the Northern Wei Dynasty, the outstanding agronomist Jia Sijie, “Qi Min Yao Shu,” a comprehensive exposition of fertilizer types, characteristics, accumulation methods and methods of application, emphasizing the “thin soil manure, manure should be cooked” base fertilizer application method , As well as the “faecal law” kind of manure application technology and green manure technology. Ancient varieties of fertilizer not only include a variety of animal manure, bones, silkworm, silkworm pupa, but also “cut Artemisia bald fertilizer” habit, there are also ponds in the Yangtze River Basin, a wide range of fertilizer practice. “Qi Min Yao Shu” emphasizes that the green manure spring valley can receive 10 stone per mu, and then the average mu yield of the millet stone 3.3, compared with the increase in production more than 2 times. Jin Zhi “Guang Zhi” introduced paddy fields as a green manure technology. In 1911, American scientist King said in his book The Millennial Farmer that the mystery that China, as the largest empire in the world and its ever-lasting Millennium, is the application of farmyard manure.
Fertilizer is the embodiment of national industrial modernization. Fertilizer invented in Europe, is an important symbol of industrial civilization. In 1800 Britain took the lead in recovering ammonium sulfate from industrial coking as a fertilizer. In 1861, Germany extracted potassium chloride from seawater. In 1908, Germany invented the modernized ammonia technology. The application of chemical fertilizers doubled the population of Europe and became the center of world economy in one fell swoop . The main raw material of nitrogen fertilizer in the fertilizer comes from the atmosphere, and the raw materials of other fertilizers are mainly minerals. Nitrogen production is similar to that of biological nitrogen fixation in traditional agriculture by converting inert N2 in the atmosphere into active NO3- and NH4 + available to crops through high temperature and pressure and a catalyst, but an ammonia plant on a 10-hectare site can produce daily 3000 tons of N, to meet 60,000 acres of farmland to maintain 800-1000 kg per mu yield, which is more than the traditional biological nitrogen fixation efficiency increased by 3000 times. Raw materials for other fertilizers are also derived from natural minerals such as phosphate rock, potash mine and magnesium mine. Through modern industrial technologies such as thermal decomposition and acid dissolution, the production capacity can be greatly increased. Fertilizer farmland from fallow farming – long cycle of reproduction into a short cycle without the need for fertilizer continuous production, a substantial increase in farmland food production frequency and output.
In the early days after the founding of New China, China’s fertilizer production capacity was only 6,000 tons, far from meeting demand. In 1949, the founding of New China in 1949 meant that chemical fertilizers were listed as strategic resources, giving rise to the power of the whole country to increase production and spare no effort to import it with extremely valuable foreign exchange. Since the 1950s, with Hou Debang and other scientists as the main representatives, the company has developed a fertilizer technology with Chinese characteristics. The “carbonation law” made ammonium bicarbonate and built an independent innovation and modernized nitrogen fertilizer industrial system. Phosphate fertilizer from the superphosphate? Calcium Magnesium Phosphate? Nitrophosphate fertilizer? Ammonium phosphate? Compound fertilizer fumble for half a century, the potash fertilizer industry in 1956 in Qinghai Chaerhan dry salt lake began to explore until the beginning of this century, the successful development of “anti-floating Select cold crystallization “technology, began mass production. In 1990, China surpassed the former Soviet Union to become the largest nitrogen fertilizer producer in the world. In 2005, China produced more phosphate fertilizer than the United States and became the No. 1 in the world. The development of the fertilizer industry is a successful example of the combination of introduction and innovation by the people and the government of China, a nation-wide effort to tackle the problems of people eating well and national economy steadily.
Reducing fertilizer efficiency is the inevitable requirement of agricultural green development. In the nineties of last century, a large number of chemical fertilizers started to be applied in China. In 2010, the total amount of agricultural chemical fertilizers was more than 55 million tons, becoming the country with the highest dosage of chemical fertilizer in the world. It is 3.4 times of the global average, 3.4 times in the United States and 27 times in Africa. Although fertilizers themselves are not harmful, application of resources beyond the needs of crops can cause resource and environmental problems. At present, the major contradictions in agriculture in our country are transformed from structural deficiencies to aggregate contradictions. Agricultural development is facing new challenges such as “floor” uplift of production costs and intensification of “hard constraints” on resources and the environment. In recent years, the state has successively implemented the measures of soil testing and formulated fertilization and zero growth of chemical fertilizer use by 2020, and sought to optimize nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and medium in different regions according to the law of fertilizer demand of different crops, the characteristics of soil fertility and its fertilizer effect Trace elements and organic fertilizer, to achieve weight loss and efficiency, improve environmental protection goals.
Since the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China held, the 20-word requirement for agriculture has been clearly put forward, which has pointed out the road for the development of agriculture in our country. The zero growth of fertilizer use is the only way to realize the agricultural transformation and green development. On the basis of ensuring the national food security, we should adhere to the principle of “quality first, efficiency first and green guidance” and focus on the changes in market demand so as to improve quality, increase efficiency, ensure effective supply and increase farmers’ income. Further promote the optimization of structural reduction, precision fertilization and reduction, organic fertilizer instead of reduction, improvement and reduction of cultivated land quality, increase fertilizer use efficiency, promote agriculture from over-reliance on resource consumption to the pursuit of sustainable development of green ecological change, out of an output and efficient , Product safety, resource conservation and environment-friendly modern agricultural development.